F F for Tsar na Tsar

'Yan wasan kwaikwayon na gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Imperial, St Petersburg

Bolshoi Kamenny Theater 1790 ta Johann Georg de Meyr

Kodayake kamfanonin wasan kwaikwayo na opera da balanbalen masu sauraro don sauraron masu sauraro tuni sun wanzu a St. Petersburg daga farkon karni na sha takwas, Sarauniya Catherine ta II ta ba da dokar cewa th Yuni 1783 ya kawo ginin gidan wasan kwaikwayon Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny wanda ya buɗe ƙofofin sa akan 24th Satumba na wannan shekarar tare da aikin Paisiello Il mondo della luna. Giovanni Paisiello (1740-1816) an gayyaci shi da kaina St. Petersburg Daga hannun Catherine sannan ya samar da wasan kwaikwayo ta opera a sabon gidan wasan kwaikwayon na shekaru takwas masu zuwa.

A cikin aiwatar Catherine St. Petersburg don zama cibiyar Turai don kiɗa da fasaha a ƙarni na sha tara. Don cimma wannan, an shigo da mafi kyawun mawaƙa da masu fasaha. Tasirin Yammacin Turai ya kasance saboda yawancin mawaƙa, ciki har da masu amfani da flaut, suna riƙe manyan mukamai a cikin kade-kade na sarki, baƙi ne. Ba wai wannan kawai ba, har ma da wasan kwaikwayo na opera a gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Imperial Theater nuna Catherine St. Petersburg mataki, gami da Fedul & Yara, wani opera da Vasily Pashkevich ya danganta da rubutun Catherine da kansa ya rubuta.

Da alama dai masu nazarin yanayin Turai suna ɗokin kasancewa wani ɓangare na Catherine Theatre School. St. Petersburg da abubuwa da yawa da za'a bayar.

A cikin shekaru masu zuwa Catherine St. Petersburg a kan yawon shakatawa. Christian Carl Hartmann yayi tafiya daga Paris Don ba da kide kide a ciki 5th Oktoba 1786 da Friedrich Ludwig Dulon (1769-1826) sun isa Konigsberg a cikin 1793. A bayyane ya kasance tsawon lokaci don ya ɗauki nauyin da Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich ya bayar a albashin 1000 rubles.

Koyaya, ya bayyana cewa ɗayan farkon farkon karni na goma sha tara St. Petersburg da za a sa mu da zazzabi na farko na Wasan Kwaikwayon Wasannin Kwaikwayo na Imperial Opera Yusufu Guillou (1787-1853). Haifaffen ciki Paris, ya yi karatu a ƙarƙashin Devienne da Wunderlich a Conservatoire a can, yana samun difloma a 1805. Daga 1816 ya kasance mawaƙa na kotu har zuwa King Louis XVIII kuma bayan shekaru uku ya zama farfesa a Paris Conservatoire (1819-1829) inda Dorus yana cikin ɗalibansa. Rayuwarsa mai wahala a ciki Paris Haɗe da aikin soloist tare da ƙungiyar Opera, mawaki kuma mai sukar kiɗa. Hakanan ya sami lokaci don yin wasa a cikin jerin majami'a kuma ana tunanin cewa ya ƙirƙiri ƙarar iska tare da Gustave Vogt (1781-1870), oboe, Jacques-Jules Bouffil (1783-?), Clarinet, Louis-Francois Dauprat (1781-1868) ), Kakaki, da Antoine Henry, bassoon.

Ta hanyar 1829, Guillou ya gano cewa matsalolin kudi sun sa ya zama dole don yin yawon shakatawa Turai. Da alama wannan aiki shine tseratar da basukan sa tunda ba ya dawo gida ba. Madadin haka, ya zauna har abada a ciki St. Petersburg daga 1831, ya rage har zuwa mutuwarsa. Da zarar ya zo, sai ya fara shirin sake wa kansa wani aiki mai wahala da nasara. Tare da nadin nasa a matsayin sarewa na farko a gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Imperial (1831-1853) ya zo da ƙarin damar yin rayuwa mai kyau. Ya yi aiki a matsayin mai sukar lamiri a cikin 'yan jaridu, ya koyar da azuzuwan a Theatre School, ya ba da darussan sirri, hada kida don kayan sa kuma ya zama mai shelar Lartist Russe, mujallar da ya rubuta a cikin Faransanci game da mawaƙa na Rasha.

Rarraba aikin a matsayin soloist a cikin wasan kwaikwayo na Imperial Theater na wannan lokacin shine Heinrich Soussman (1796-1848). Duk da cewa shekara tara ya girmi Guillou, amma yana da asusun ajiya, wani abu ne mai daɗi a cikin da ya yi aiki a cikin renon Jariri a lokacin kamfen na 1812 / 1814 da Faransa. Da alama dai waɗannan mutanen sun gwammace su bar karnukan da suke bacci kwance. Siyasar theiran asalinsu ba ta da wani raye a rayuwar mawaƙa ta ciki St. Petersburg.

Heinrich Soussman

Soussman ya kasance dan Berliner kuma wani abu na ɗan kishi. Lokacin yana dan shekara shida ya sami darussan game da violin daga mahaifinsa kuma daga baya ya dauki tsohon tsarin sarewa. Ya yi karatu da farko tare da Gottlieb Kruger, da farko sarewa ga Sarkin Wurtemburg, sannan kuma tare da August Schroeck, mawaƙin kide-kide na mawakan Berlin Opera Orchestra. Samun rauni a kirji yayin da yake aiki a rukunin rukunin yara, an mamaye shi gida kuma ya sami rayuwa yana wasa da violin har sai ya warke ta yadda zai iya dawowa da sarewa. A cikin 1816 an nada shi ga Royal Chapel, Berlin da kuma nazarin ka'idar da jituwa tare da Carl Friedrich Zelter. Ya yi tafiya mai yawa a matsayin mai soloist na shekaru masu zuwa kuma ya bayyana a cikin nasara St. Petersburg a cikin 1822, shekara daya bayan ya gama haɗin malami, Agusta Schroeck (1779-1854) a cikin Berlin farko na Weber Freischutz. Kusan nan take ya karɓi goron gayyata don zama mai ɗaukar nauyi na ƙungiyar mawaƙa.

Bai kasance ba Semiramide shekarar da ta gabata amma yanzu jin daɗin kiɗa suna canzawa a ciki St. Petersburg kuma tare, Guillou da Soussman, tare da tsohuwar turanci na tsarin, suna fuskantar ɗayan mahimman abubuwa na farko a cikin dukkanin kiɗan na Rasha.

A gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Bolshoi Kamenny, da maraice na 29th Nuwamba 1836, Glinka Rai ga Tsar an gabatar da shi a karo na farko tare da simintin mawaƙa na Rasha a ƙarƙashin baton na Catterino Cavos (1775-1840). Shekaru 20 kafin hakan, Cavos ya fara wasan kwaikwayon wasan kwaikwayon nasa na farko a wasan kwaikwayo a cikin wannan wasan kwaikwayo. Ya kasance Mawaki wakili na wasan kwaikwayo, ballets da kuma ayyukan kiɗa ban da kasancewarsa mai jagoranci mai daraja da kuma mawaƙa. Ya gina gidan wasan kwaikwayon Bolshoi Kamenny a cikin kidan wasan opera na Rasha kuma ya yi aiki sosai don bunkasa yanayin kasa na kade-kade na kasar Rasha. Wani mutum zai iya tunanin cewa yana sha'awar tabbatar da sabis na mashahuran mawaƙa don ƙungiyar mawaƙa. Babu shakka, Guillou da Soussman sun sha wahala irin waɗannan ayyukan. Tabbas, an ruwaito Glinka ya faɗi haka, Turai.

Zai iya bayyana cewa Soussman ya sami nasara sosai a farkon farko a Gidan Wasan kwaikwayon na Imperial amma a shekara mai zuwa (1837) ya dauki lokaci don ziyartar Jamus inda ya taka leda a Breslau da kuma Berlin. Ya yi masa maraba da zuwa Breslau da sanarwa game da wakokinsa a cikin Allgemeine Zeitung yabi sautinsa mai iko, tausayin maganarsa, tsarin aiwatar da hukuncin, tonguing biyu da kuma rashin daidaituwa. Kiɗan kide kide da wake-wake ya iya haɗa wasu abubuwan nasa na kansa kamar yadda ya rubuta da yawa waɗanda a ciki ake buƙatar sarewa a cikin abubuwan haɗuwa da yawa.

Komawa zuwa St. Petersburg, ya ci gaba da wasa tare da Guillou a gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Imperial kuma ya rubuta nasa Grosse Praktische Fl don amfani da ɗalibai. Tare da mutuwar Cavos a watan Mayu 1840, Soussman da Guillou an bar su don gabatar da aikin farko na Glinka Ruslan da Lyudmila da aka ba ƙarƙashin Albrecht bayan shekaru biyu (27th Nuwamba 1842). Wataƙila ya zama alama ga duka masu ɗaukar hoto kuma sun kasance masu rakiyar wasu mawaƙa na Rasha, waɗanda wasunsu suka shiga fagen wasan farko. Rai ga Tsar, shekara shida kafin. Wadanda aka san su sun kasance Osip Petrov, Mariya Stepanova da Anna Petrovna-Vorobyeva.

Mutuwar Soussman a cikin 1848 ya bar wani wuri a cikin sautin sarewa na chestungiyar Wasannin Wasannin Tsigiya ta Imperial Theater wanda zai yi wuya a cika. Ko ta yaya, Ernst Wilhelm Heinemeyer (1827-1869) an gayyace shi St. Petersburg kuma ya ɗauki matsayin. Haifaffen ciki Hanover, ya yi nazarin sarewa tare da mahaifinsa, Christian H. Heinemeyer (1796-1872) kuma daga 1845 zuwa 1847 ya yi aiki a ƙungiyar mawaƙa tare da mahaifinsa. Don shekaru goma sha biyu masu zuwa ya riƙe matsayi mai daraja a cikin St. Petersburg wasa a cikin wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo na Imperial da kuma koyarwa a Theatre School. Wataƙila, duk da haka, ya ɓoye shekarar farko a St. Petersburg wasa a cikin ƙungiyar makaɗaice ta kotu kafin ɗaukar Soussman

Heinemeyer tabbas ya kasance fitaccen ɗan wasa don riƙe matsayi kamar waɗannan lokacin yana ɗan shekara ashirin. Abin takaici, aikinsa yayi gajere. An fitar da shi daga chestungiyar Wasan kwaikwayon ta Imperial Theatre a 1859, kusan tabbas ta hanyar rashin lafiya, ya koma Hanover kuma a cikin 1866 ya koma Vienna inda ya mutu a 12th Fabrairu 1869, shekara 42. A St. Petersburg, Heinemeyer ya yi aiki tare da manyan 'yan wasa biyu. Ya haɗu da Guillou har tsawon shekaru biyar sannan Ciardi na shekaru shida bayan mutuwar Guillou a 1853. Ya yi wasa tare da wasu fitattun kwararru na lokacinsa da kuma wasu fitattun mawaka a ciki Turai.

Cesare Ciardi

Wanda zai gaje shi, Cesare Ciardi (1818-1877), ya tafi St. Petersburg tare da suna daidai da kowane daga cikin magabata. Haifaffen ciki Prato, Tuscany a cikin 1818 ya nuna kyauta ta farko don kiɗa wanda malamai suka gabatar da shi Giuseppe Nuti da Luigi Carlesi, suna shirya shi don bayyanarsa ta farko a bainar jama'a a 1827 a Genoas Palazzo Reale. On that occasion he was presented to the royal family and audience by none other than Nicolo Paganini. This was the start of a concert career which took him to many of Turais prestigious venues and earned him the epithet of virtuoso. Critics, including Enrico Montazio, considered him one of the great soloists of the time and in a review of one of his performances in the 1840s, the Rivista Musicale di Firenze lura cewa shi an

Yawon shakatawa na 1847 ya kawo shi London inda aka ba shi kwarin gwiwa a Gidan Opera yayin da Grisi, Mario da Tamburini suna jiran sauraron sa. A cewar WS Broadwood, shi ma ya bayyana

Yayinda yake London, Broadwood ya gabatar da Ciardi ga Rudall da Rose. John Finn ya lura da hakan

Shiga ciki St. Petersburg a cikin 1853, Ciardi Theatre School da Conservatory inda daga baya Tchaikowsky zai zama dalibin sa. An gayyace shi sau da yawa don yin rubutu a gidajen adabi da kuma ba darussan ga mambobin iyalai masu arziki. A wani lokaci ya kasance tare da Tchaikowsky wanda ya kunna masa waka. Koyaya, har ilayau ya ba da lokaci don tsarawa da sauran ayyukan fasaha. An san shi da cewa ya kasance mai ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwararrun masassara da ƙwararrun ma. Lorenzo ya gaya mana cewa ya zana kwaroron roba daga Rubinstein wanda ya gabatar dashi a ranar haihuwarsa.

Ciardi yana nan lokacin da gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Maryiinsky na yanzu ya buɗe ƙofofinsa tare da wasan kwaikwayon Glinka Rai ga Tsar Konstantin Lyadov ya gudanar Oktoba 2nd 1860. A shekara mai zuwa ya shaida kauracewar cutar serfdom a ciki Rasha kuma hada shi Gran Concerto a cikin D Op.129. Aikinsa a gidan wasan kwaikwayo ya ba da izini ga sauran abubuwan da aka tsara. A cikin 1862 Pugni Firam ɗin aka bashi kuma ya qirqiri wani sigar bisa jigon daga maki. Tabbas, 1860 Le Carnaval Russe,flowed akai-akai daga alkalami ya bayyana a karkashin shugabanci na Wagner lokacin da mawaki ya ziyarci St. Petersburg a cikin 1863 da Berlioz bayan shekaru hudu da yin Harold a ciki Italiya.

Sabuwar gidan wasan kwaikwayo tare da babban ɗakinta mai kyan gani na kayan kwalliyar kwalliya, fararen zane da kujeru masu launin shuɗi dole ne ya yi wahayi da wasu fasahar wasan yayin 1860 Eduard Napravnik (1839-1916) a matsayin babban mai gudanar da wasan kade-kade na wasan kwaikwayo na Isaka. Napravnik ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen bunkasa wasan opera na Rasha. Ya sadaukar da sama da rabin karni zuwa gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Maryiinsky (1863-1916), horar da mawaƙa da kuma kula da ƙungiyar mawaƙa wacce ta yi shirye-shiryen kide kide da mizani sosai, ban da wasan opera da ballets.

Karin Wabn

Daga 1857 gaba, Theodor Waterstraat (1835-1896)) ya buga wasa tare da Ciardi. Shigowar sa St. Petersburg alama mai mahimmanci a cikin ci gaba da sarewa sarewa a ciki Rasha. Haifaffen ciki Jamus on Afrilu 5th 1835, da alama ya zama ɗan wasa na farko da ya fara amfani da kayan aiki na Boehm a cikin Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Imperial Theater. A cikin shekaru 39 na gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Maryiinsky (1857-1896), Waterstraat ya taka rawa a yawancin wuraren wasan kwaikwayon na Rasha, ciki har da Boris Gudonov, Rubinstein Shaidan tare da Osip Petrov a matsayin yarima kuma Prince Igor, wanda duk mutanen Rasha suka hada da Ivan Melnikov, Olga Olgina, Mariya Slavina da Fyodor Strawinsky (Igor St. Petersburg tare da Saint Saens, mai koyar da karairayi Charles-Paul Turban da mai furucin, George Gillet don bugawa Caprice akan Danish & Rashan Airs hada waccan shekarar ta Saint Saens.

Tsakanin 1857 da 1896, Waterstraat ya riƙe mahimman wuraren koyarwa. Ya koyar da sarewa a dakin ajiye kayayyakin gargajiya sannan ya dauki nauyin karatun kida don Sarauniyar Masarauta ta Royal. Biyu daga cikin ɗalibansa sun zama 'yan adawar Rasha na farko da suka riƙe manyan mukamai a ƙungiyar makaɗa. Alexander Semenov (b.1862) ya kasance sautin kide-kide na kungiyar wasan kwaikwayo na Imperial Court kuma an koyar dashi a Choir School of the Royal Chapel, yayin da Fedor Stepanov (1866-1914) ya zama farfesa na farko na Rasha game da sarewa a cikin majalissar kuma ya buga sarewa ta farko a cikin Maryainsky Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Sarauta. A cikin ƙaddamar da aikin kwararru na waɗannan 'yan wasan biyu, Waterstraat ya kafa tsarin Boehm tsarin yadda ya kamata St. Petersburg, don duka sun zama malamai masu daraja na kayan aikin da suka zaɓa.

Carl Wehner

Dingara grist a niƙa, Carl Wehner (1838-1912), ɗalibin Caspar Roeder da Theobald Boehm, sun isa St. Petersburg a 1867, suna ɓoye shekarun 17 na tsawon aikinsa a wannan garin. Ya buga katako, tsarin Boehm mai rami tare da ramuka da kuma bude baki G don duka aikinsa kuma a cewar Lorenzo,

Wehner da alama ya iya riƙe nasa cikin tsofaffin abokan aikin sa. Yin wasa a kan karar Boehm na katako ya bayyana ba kawai a wasan kwaikwayon opera da Napravnik ya bayar ba har ma a karkashin jagorancin wasu sanannun mawakan, gami da Tchaikowsky da Rubinstein. Koyaya, ga alama yana da lokaci don sauran abubuwa ma. A wani ranar da bai tabbata ba ya ziyarci Siberia Lorenzo ya yi ikirarin cewa an dauki hotun shi a wancan lokacin, sanye da babbar mayafin Jawo da hula tare da bindiga a belin sa, yana kallon kowane inch dan adabin maimakon dan fara aiki.

Bayan yayi aiki a Tsar St. Petersburg, Wehner ya bar don Hanover inda a kusan 1885 ya taka leda a gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Konig. Daga nan ne Theodore Thomas ya dauko shi don kade-kade na kungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta New York a karkashin Damrosch. Daga nan ya buga wasa tare da kungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta Metropolitan Opera kafin ya zama babba a cikin New York Philharmonic inda ya kwashe shekaru goma sha huɗu na aikinsa.

A cikin 1898 nasa Ayyukan Fasaha Na Fasaha Goma sha biyu An buga shi kuma a cikin shekarunsa na ƙarshe ya sadaukar da kai ga koyarwa, ko da yake a cewar Lorenzo, duk da matsalolin kuɗin kuɗi, ba zai ji ko koyar da kowa ba da ƙarawar ƙarfe. Ya mutu a New York City on 27th Maris 1912 bayan kyakkyawan aiki. Mafi kyawun katako, Boehm & Mendler sarewa, wanda aka yi c.1878, yanzu yana cikin DC .Miller Collection (DCM 157).

Duk da haka, St. Petersburg bai taɓa ganin ƙarshen tsohuwar tsarin jirgi na wuta na Viennese ba. A cikin 1871 shekara ta ashirin da biyu Ernesto K An nada shi zuwa wani yanki mai busa sarewa na wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayon na Imperial Theater sannan kuma ya buga tare da Wehner, Waterstraat da Ciardi ta amfani da tsohuwar tsarin saiti na Viennese. Da alama Napravnik ya kara girman kade-kade kamar ba a taɓa yin busa sau hudu kafin wannan lokacin ba duk da cewa sun taɓa taka leda a wasan opera da wasan raba rawa da watakila. An rarraba sashen cikin yanada kyau biyu tare da Wehner da Waterstraat suna riƙe tsarin Boehm yayin da Ciardi da K

A cikin dukkan 'yan wasan kasashen waje da ke rike da mukamai a kungiyar mawaka ta Imperial, Italiya, Ciardi da K St. Petersburg har zuwa mutuwarsa a kan 17th Iya 1907. Shekarar kafin rasuwarsa wani marubuci ya girmama shi St. Petersburg Herald(Nov.25th 1906) wanda ya ba da taƙaitaccen bayanin aikinsa da kalmomin godiya. Wannan ya kasance a ranar bikin cikar sa shekara ta talatin da kasancewarsa ya goyi bayan ofungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta Masarauta. lokacin da K

Ta hanyar 1906 bai kasance baƙo ga ba St. Petersburg masu sauraro. Ya rike duk manyan mukamai na yau da kullun kuma ya shahara sosai a matsayin mawaki. Baya ga ayyukan 100 sama don sarewa, ya qera waka, Achmed, wanda ya sami nasarar gudana a cikin St. Petersburg a 1893, kuma sama da ɗaya ballet Clorinda, kasance mai shahara sosai a Gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Mai.

Ernesto K

Wasu daga cikin waƙoƙinsa sun kasance suna da alaƙa da wasan kwaikwayo da aka yi a gidan wasan kwaikwayon Maryiinsky. Abokan hulɗa tare da bambance-bambance ko ra'ayoyi waɗanda suka danganci jigogi na aiki suna da sha'awar masu sauraro don sha'awar wasan kwaikwayo a gida. Nunin Virtuosic wani muhimmin sashi ne a cikin sa Gudun Fasaha Op.97 da sauran mawaƙa. Masu sauraron ƙarni na sha tara sun ji daɗin irin wannan fasahar fasaha kuma babu shakka K

An haife shi Modena, Italiya on 4th Disamba 1849, K Karl Theatre, Vienna a cikin 1869, ya rage har zuwa 1871 lokacin da aka ce Ciardi ya matsa shi ya tafi St. Petersburg. A Ciardi yarima Oldenburg School da kuma gudanar da kungiyar mawaka na dalibi a makarantar sadarwa ta Injiniya da Injiniya. Sunansa a ciki St. Petersburg ya kasance a cikin shekaru masu zuwa cewa an girmama shi a matsayin Freeman na City.

A lokacin 36 shekarunsa a St. Petersburg duk da haka, bai taɓa rinjayi ɗaukar bugun tsarin Boehm ba. Abokan aikinsa, Waterstraat da Wehner na iya ko ba su ba da shawarar canjin ba amma ana tunanin K

In the instrument workshops of Jul. Heinr. Zimmermann, flutes are manufactured which make possible the high g a trill, which trill cannot be done on other flutes. These flutes bear the name Modell Zimmermann. Since they combine very easy speech and the above mentioned advantage with a large, full tone and pure intonation, I do not hesitate to recommend this model, when means permit it.

Ba a san takamaiman shi ba ko K Flten-Schule wanda Zimmermann ya buga a kusan 1880. Hoton da ke jikin murfin yana nuna K

A karni na sha tara akwai tsarin tsarin abubuwa masu sauki daban daban wadanda za'a iya samu a hannun masu amfani da su a ciki Rasha. A bayyane yake, babu kayan aikin da suka dace don ƙwararrun daga masu sana'a na Rasha suka yi. Zimmermann, wanda ke aiki ba kawai a ciki ba St. Petersburg amma kuma a ciki Moscow da kuma Riga, ciyar da sarewa kusan guda hannu. Sauran bugunan wasu nau'ikan daga kasashe daban-daban an samu su a hannun 'yan wasan Rasha da malamai wadanda suka shigo da su cikin kasar.

Koyaya, koyarwar Waterstraat da Wehner, ta amfani da kayan kida na Boehm, sun fara yin 'ya'ya a babban birnin Rasha. Ba tare da wata shakka ba, Waterstraat

Fedor Stepanov

Wani ɗan ƙasa na St. Petersburg, Fedor Vasilyevich Stepanov (1867-1914) ya fara karatunsa a Waterstraat

On 25th Maris 1892 Ya yi wasa a gaban kwamitin alƙalai ciki har da mai jagorantar E. Napravnik, R. Drigo da N. Kotkova. Sauran wadanda suka fafata a wannan bikin sun hada da Constantine Zuev, Vladimir Gurevich, Alexander Semenov, Anton Lalo da Ivan Petrov. Dukansu 'yan uwan ​​juna ne kuma fitattun playersan wasa amma duk sun kasa doke Stepanov zuwa wani matsayi a cikin wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo na Imperial. Nasarar tasa wata nasara ce ba kawai ga kansa ba amma ga dukkanin masu son goyan bayan Rasha na nan gaba. Chestungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta Firayim tana nuna fifiko ga playersan wasan waje kafin wannan ranar. Stepanov yana da daraja da bambanci na kasancewa ɗan Rashanci na farko da ya sami wannan matsayi mai girma.

Stepanov

An fahimci cewa Directorate na Wasannin Wasannin kwaikwayo na Kasa na aiki da tsari wanda taken shi

A cikin 1890 Kirsimeti Hauwa'u da kuma Da Tsar. A cikin 1899 kungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta Maryiinsky tare da Angelo Neumann St. Petersburg yin wasan kwaikwayon Wagner (Zoben) a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Karl Muck.

A lokaci guda rayuwarsa na aiki ya hada da gudanarwa da koyar da kwastomomi a Pavlovsk soja School da kuma ayyukan kwararru a ɗakunan ajiya (1905-1914). A can ya horar da masu kida na gaba kuma ya sami kyakkyawan sakamako ta dukkan asusu. G. Shevend ya sauke karatu daga aji a 1908 tare da difloma, manyan lambobin azurfa da lambar yabo ta Schubert. Wannan ya wakilci ficewar nasara a matsayin nasara mai kama da wannan a cikin babban sare jirgin kafin Stepanov Makaranta don sarewa da kuma Jagora game da sikeli, Chords da Arpeggios (Zimmermann ZM 17020) ya rinjayi aikin Rashanci sosai a cikin karni na ashirin.

A farkon karni Stepanov yana da shekaru 33 kuma an riga an sami nasarori sosai fiye da kowane masu yin aikin Rashanci a St. Petersburg. Ya kasance daya daga cikin manyan mukamai a cikin aikinsa na malami da mai gabatarwa. Ya ci gaba da aikin koyarwa na malamin nasa kuma ya kasance ɗan ƙasa na gari. Yayi rikodin gramophone a cikin 1901 da 1906 kuma a cikin waɗannan za a iya jin isasshen isasshen ɗinka mai kyau amma sauti mai haske, har a duk cikin rajista, tare da ƙarami ko babu vibrato.

Ko yaya dai, saboda rashin lafiya, aikin sa na zamani ya kusa karewa. Cutar sa da sauri ya ci gaba kuma ya ci gaba 13th Yuni 1907, Stepanov ya tilasta yin murabus daga ƙungiyar mawaƙa. Kunnawa 1st Agusta 1907 tuni aka kore shi ba tare da tanadin fensho ba. Kasancewar ya taka leda a cikin wasan kwaikwayo na Imperial Theater na Shekaru 15 shi, a matsayinsa na ɗan Rasha, ba shi da haƙƙin karɓar fensho yayin da mawaƙa na ƙasashen waje da ke aiki a cikin ƙungiyar makaɗaicin ɗaya na iya tsammanin ɗayan. An yi wasu buƙatu da yawa ga Daraktan gidan wasan kwaikwayo suna neman banbanci ga dokar da za a yi don fitaccen ɗan wasan Rasha. Kowane fatawa ya fadi a kan kunnuwan kurma wanda ke tabbatar da cewa makomar makamancin haka tana jiran duk wani mawaƙin ɗan ƙasa ba tare da la'akari da cancanta ba. Masu ba da izini na Rasha a wancan lokacin sun kasance 'yan ƙasa na biyu a cikin wancan cewa dole ne su yi aiki mafi tsayi fiye da kowane ɗan wasan waje don karɓar kowane fensho. Ko da sun sami nasarar isa matsayi na soloist, suna iya tsammanin albashi na 300 rubles kasa da takwarorinsu na ƙasashen waje.

Fedor Stepanov ya ci gaba da koyarwa tsawon shekaru bayan ya bar ƙungiyar mawaƙa kuma ya mutu a St. Petersburg on 4th Yuli 1914. A yau ana tunawa da shi a matsayin ɗayan manyan 'yan wasan Rasha na farko kuma ana iya samun sunan sa a yanzu a cikin busa-busa na ɗalibin da aka yi a ciki Taiwan, musamman don kasuwar Rasha.

Karl Schwab (1873-1938) da kuma Julius Federgans (1862-1920) sun karɓi wurarensu a cikin Maryiinsky Orchestra a cikin 1896 da 1897 bi da bi. Bayan sun shafe fiye da shekaru goma tare tare da Stepanov, waɗannan 'yan wasan sun ci gaba da aikin da aka fara amfani da su na amfani da busa ƙahowar Boehm.

Karl Schwab

An haife shi a Wildberg 26th Yuni 1873, Schwab yayi karatu a Stuttgart tare da Karl Kruger wanda ya kasance dalibin Boehm. Ya sauke karatu a cikin ɗakunan ajiya cikin sarewa, kiɗa da kuma kayan haɗin kai kuma, yana da shekaru 24, ya yi tafiya zuwa St. Petersburg don ɗaukar matsayi a cikin Orchestra Theater na wasan kwaikwayo. Wataƙila ya yi wasa ne kawai don wasan kwaikwayon wasan rawa a wasan farko amma ba da daɗewa ba an haɓaka shi don yin sarewa ta farko a cikin wasan kwaikwayon na Imperial Maryiinsky Opera Orchestra inda ya kasance har zuwa 1916.

A bayyane dalilin da ya sa ya bar wannan matsayin da aka girmama ba a bayyane ba ne kuma ba a san abin da ya yi ba har shekaru huɗu masu zuwa. Wataƙila an sallame shi kamar yadda Jamus ya kasance yanzu Rashas enemy and the Germanic name of the Russian capital had been changed to Petrograd. Rashin rikicewar zamantakewar al'umma da kuma gunaguni na tsaro sun haifar da juyin juya halin Fabrairu na 1917 lokacin da aka kashe Tsar Nicholas II da danginsa. Yanayin siyasa ya zama dole ya sanya rayuwa cikin wahala ga mawaƙa da citizensan ƙasa na manyan biranen.

Koyaya, Schwab ya zauna a Rasha kamar yadda a cikin 1920 ya kasance mai rera wakoki a Veronezh Symphony Orchestra kuma malami a kwalejin kiɗa a can, inda aka tilasta shi ya koyar ba kawai sarewa ba har ma da jigon.

Ya ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin Veronezh Symphony Orchestra har zuwa 1937 lokacin da aka kama shi a kan abin da ake tsammanin zargin ƙarya ne na leken asiri. Zai yiwu an kama shi yayin ta abotarsa ​​tare da Osip Mandelstam (1891-1938) wanda ya isa Veronezh a kusan 1934. Wataƙila ya san Mandelstam tun daga lokacinsa a St. Petersburg inda mawaƙi ya rubuta rubutun don sabon motsi na Acmeism a 1913, kawai 'yan shekaru kafin Schwab

Yana da kyau a sani cewa duka Schwab da Madelstam sun gama kwanakinsu a yanayi iri daya. An yanke wa Karl Schwab hukuncin ɗaurin shekaru biyar a gidan yari a wajen Veronezh kuma ya mutu a kan hakan 18th Janairu 1938 kafin kammala hukuncinsa. An kama Osip Mandelstam bisa zargin sa Vladivostok on 27th Disamba 1938.

Julius Federgans

Julius Federgans, Schwab

The flautists na karni na sha tara St. Petersburg sun kasance lalle wasu daga cikin mafi kyau 'yan wasan in Turai. Su playersan wasa ne, masu kida da kuma malamai waɗanda ke da tasiri wajen yin kiɗa a ɗaya daga cikin manyan biranen Turai. Sun taka rawa wajen bunkasa halayyar wakoki ta kasa kuma aikinsu yana da babban sakamako. Kamar yadda koyaushe, yanayi da wadatar mutanen da suka shiga ya bambanta sosai amma matsayin margiinsky flautists koyaushe yana ba da umarnin girmama mawaka a duk duniya kuma yana ci gaba da yin hakan a yau.

Stuart Scott, 2010

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